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OpenAIR: FAQs

This guide will give you an introduction to OpenAIR, RGU's open access institutional repository.

FAQs

OpenAIR is the primary means for researchers at RGU to make their work open access. Making research open access is important for a variety of reasons:

  • It benefits society by enabling people with low- or no budget to access the products of research, and helping to demonstrate the value of publicly-funded research to those who pay for it.
  • It benefits researchers by increasing the discoverability of their work, which means wider audiences and more citations.
  • It is now a requirement of many funding bodies and also the Research Excellence Framework.

More information about the benefits of Open Access is available in our general guide. More information about funder and REF requirements for Open Access is available in our dedicated guide.

OpenAIR is a database of outputs created by RGU's researchers. This includes all RGU staff, research students (i.e. DBA, DInfSci, DPP, DPT, EngD, MPhil, MRes, MSc by Research, PhD) and any other person whose research has been supported by RGU (e.g. visiting academics).

The repository can hold a variety of media, both textual and non-textual. Content typically falls into the following output types, for which further details are available in the repository policy:

  • Artefacts, designs and exhibitions
  • Books and book chapters
  • Conference publications
  • Journal articles
  • Posters and presentations
  • Project websites (external links only)
  • Reports
  • Research data (including datasets and protocols)
  • Theses

 

OpenAIR aims to store its contents in file formats that are as easy to use as possible, by as many people as possible, for as far into the future as possible. This means that we try to avoid proprietary formats (i.e. file types that require someone to purchase a specific piece of software) and instead prefer to store files in standard formats.

The vast majority of files on OpenAIR are in .pdf format. If you do not have a PDF version of your work, do not worry; the team will be able to do the conversion for you.

For research data, the following list of recommended file formats is taken from the UK Data Archive:

Type of data Acceptable formats for sharing, reuse and preservation Other acceptable formats for data preservation

Quantitative tabular data with extensive metadata

a dataset with variable labels, code labels, and defined missing values, in addition to the matrix of data

SPSS portable format (.por)

delimited text and command ('setup') file (SPSS, Stata, SAS, etc.) containing metadata information

some structured text or mark-up file containing metadata information, e.g. DDI XML file

proprietary formats of statistical packages e.g. SPSS (.sav), Stata (.dta)
MS Access (.mdb/.accdb)

Quantitative tabular data with minimal metadata

a matrix of data with or without column headings or variable names, but no other metadata or labelling

comma-separated values (CSV) file (.csv)

tab-delimited file (.tab)

including delimited text of given character set with SQL data definition statements where appropriate

 

delimited text of given character set - only characters not present in the data should be used as delimiters (.txt)

widely-used formats, e.g. MS Excel (.xls/.xlsx), MS Access (.mdb/.accdb), dBase (.dbf) and OpenDocument Spreadsheet (.ods)

Geospatial data

vector and raster data

ESRI Shapefile (essential - .shp, .shx, .dbf, optional - .prj, .sbx, .sbn)

geo-referenced TIFF (.tif, .tfw)

CAD data (.dwg)

tabular GIS attribute data

 

ESRI Geodatabase format (.mdb)

MapInfo Interchange Format (.mif) for vector data

Keyhole Mark-up Language (KML) (.kml)

Adobe Illustrator (.ai), CAD data (.dxf or .svg)

binary formats of GIS and CAD packages

Qualitative data

textual

eXtensible Mark-up Language (XML) text according to an appropriate Document Type Definition (DTD) or schema (.xml)

Rich Text Format (.rtf)

plain text data, ASCII (.txt)

Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) (.html)

widely-used proprietary formats, e.g. MS Word (.doc/.docx)

some proprietary/software-specific formats, e.g. NUD*IST, NVivo and ATLAS.ti

 

Digital image data TIFF version 6 uncompressed (.tif)

JPEG (.jpeg, .jpg) but only if created in this format

TIFF (other versions) (.tif, .tiff)

Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF/A, PDF) (.pdf)

standard applicable RAW image format (.raw)

Photoshop files (.psd)

Digital audio data

Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) (.flac)

MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 (.mp3) but only if created in this format

Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) (.aif)

Waveform Audio Format (WAV) (.wav)

Digital video data

MPEG-4 (.mp4)

motion JPEG 2000 (.mj2)

 

 

Documentation and scripts Rich Text Format (.rtf)
PDF/A or PDF (.pdf)
HTML (.htm)
OpenDocument Text (.odt)

plain text (.txt)

some widely-used proprietary formats, e.g. MS Word (.doc/.docx) or MS Excel (.xls/.xlsx)

XML marked-up text (.xml) according to an appropriate DTD or schema, e.g. XHMTL 1.0

In general, when we talk about the "Author Accepted Manuscript" (AAM) we are referring to the version of the document at the point when it has incorporated any changes from the peer-review process and been formally accepted by the publisher, but before the publisher has started applying their logos and typesetting. This version is also sometimes called just the "accepted version" or "post-print". The following diagram of a typical publication process may help to illustrate this:

Identifying the AAM can sometimes be difficult - publishers may call it something else, or their publication process may be different to that shown in the diagram above. The table below lists the terminology used by several common publishers and gives examples of a typical AAM from that publisher, which can be compared with the same article in proof form and the final published version (also known as the "Version of Record", or VOR). We have not been able to obtain examples of proof versions for all publishers, but will hopefully add these in future.

Publisher name Terminology and notes Example AAM Example Proof Example VOR
Elsevier

"Accepted Manuscript" for AAM.

May have a coversheet. May also have an "Accepted manuscript" watermark. Usually does not have any publisher formatting.

Example of Elsevier AAM showing coversheet and first page. Example of Elsevier proof, showing first two pages. Example of Elsevier VOR, showing first two pages.
Emerald

"Author accepted manuscript" and "post-print" for AAM.

May have a coversheet. May also have a "For peer review" watermark. Usually does not have any publisher formatting.

Example of Emerald AAM, showing first two pages.   Example of Emerald VOR, showing first two pages.
IEEE

"Accepted version" and "Pre-print version" for AAM.

Usually has no page numbers or IEEE markings, but otherwise may include publisher formatting.

Example of IEEE AAM, showing first two pages.   Example of IEEE VOR, showing first two pages.
SAGE

"Version 2" for AAM.

May have a coversheet. May also have a "For peer review" watermark. Usually does not have any publisher formatting.

Example of SAGE AAM, showing coversheet and first page.   Example of SAGE VOR, showing first two pages.
Springer

"Author's accepted manuscript" and "Author's accepted version" for AAM.

Usually does not feature final page numbers, publisher logos or final layout, but may otherwise feature publisher formatting.

Example of Springer AAM, showing first two pages.   Example of Springer VOR, showing first two pages.
Taylor and Francis

"Accepted manuscript" for AAM.

May have an "Accepted manuscript" watermark. Usually does not have any publisher formatting.

Example of Taylor and Francis AAM, showing first two pages.   Example of Taylor and Francis VOR, showing first two pages.
Wiley

"Accepted version" and "Peer-reviewed version" for AAM.

Usually does not include any publisher formatting.

Example of Wiley AAM, showing first two pages. Example of Wiley Proof, showing first two pages.

Example of Wiley VOR, showing first two pages.

Links to articles used in above examples:

(Elsevier) = KAJAMA, M.N., SHEHU, H., OKON, E., ORAKWE, I. and GOBINA, E. 2016. VOC oxidation in excess of oxygen using flow-through catalytic membrane reactor. International journal of hydrogen energy [online], 41(37), pages 16529-16534. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.04.164. OpenAIR version available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10059/1519.

(Emerald) = BAXTER, G., MARCELLA, R. AND O’SHEA, M. 2016. Members of the Scottish Parliament on Twitter: good constituency men ( and women)? Aslib journal of information management [online], 68(4), pages 428-447. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/AJIM-02-2016-0010. OpenAIR version available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10059/1452

(IEEE) = OCHEI, L.C., PETROVSKI, A. and BASS, J.M. 2016. Implementing the required degree of multitenancy isolation: a case study of cloud-hosted bug tracking system. In the Proceedings of the 13th IEEE international conference on services computing (SCC 2016), 27 June - 2 July 2016, San Francisco, USA. New Jersey: IEEE [online], pages 379-386. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1109/SCC.2016.56. OpenAIR version available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10059/1920.

(SAGE) = CROWTHER, S., IRONSIDE, P., SPENCE, D. and SMYTHE, L. 2016. Crafting stories in hermeneutic phenomenology research: a methodological device. Qualitative health research [online], OnlineFirst. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049732316656161. OpenAIR version available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10059/1525.

(Springer) = SANI, S., WIRATUNGA, N., MASSIE, S. and COOPER, K. 2016. SelfBACK: Activity recognition for self-management of low back pain. In Bramer, M. and Petridis, M. (eds.) 2016. Research and development in intelligent systems XXXIII: incorporating applications and innovations in intelligent systems XXIV. Cham: Springer [online], pages 281-294. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47175-4. OpenAIR version available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10059/1973.

(Taylor and Francis) = PRATHURU, A.K., FAISAL, N.H., JIHAN, S., STEEL, J.A. and NJUGUNA, J. 2016. Stress analysis at the interface of metal-to-metal adhesively bonded joints subjected to 4-point bending: finite element method. Journal of adhesion [online], Latest Articles. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00218464.2016.1172309. OpenAIR version available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10059/1619.

(Wiley) = CRAWFORD, L. 2016. Moral legitimacy: the struggle of homeopathy in the NHS. Bioethics [online], 30(2), pages 85-95. Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bioe.12227. OpenAIR version available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10059/1583.

The Publications Team can provide you with an e-mail template to request the accepted manuscript from your co-author. To request a copy of the template, just ask us at publications@rgu.ac.uk

We make sure to observe publisher's restrictions on material deposited in OpenAIR. In almost all cases, the publisher embargo only restricts open access to the full text, which means that we are still able to create a record on OpenAIR and deposit a restricted-access copy of the document before the embargo ends. This is fairly common, since funders and the REF require items to be deposited fairly quickly after they have been published, or accepted for publication.

While an item is embargoed, users of the repository must submit a request for a copy of the document. These requests are received by the OpenAIR team and redirected to the relevant researcher. This therefore gives our researchers the option of providing a personal copy of their work, which most publishers permit.

Unfortunately, RGU does not have any funds to cover the costs of Gold Open Access. However, there are a variety of offset deals which may reduce or negate these costs. See our "Open Access: Going 'Gold'" guide for more information on these deals.

As a general rule, you should contact the team at publications@rgu.ac.uk when you would like to add content to OpenAIR. For further details on what we require for different types of publications, see the information given earlier in this guide.

You will not be able to upload your own thesis, as uploads can only be done by the OpenAIR team. You generally do not need to give the team a copy of your thesis, as this should be passed to us by Governance and Academic Affairs shortly after graduation. Embargoed theses are not passed to us until the embargo has ended. If you are concerned that your thesis has not appeared online, then please contact the team and we will investigate.

We are also gradually digitising our older theses. If you would like yours to be prioritised for digitisation, please let us know.

See the "Viewing statistics" section earlier in this guide for more information.

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